Cropping Patterns Adopted By Farmers In India
Cropping pattern is a dynamic concept because it changes over space and time. It can be defined as the proportion of area under various crops at a point of time. In other words, it is a yearly sequence and spatial arrangement of sowing and fallow on a given area. In India, the cropping pattern is determined by rainfall, climate, temperature, soil type and technology.
Cropping System in India
The Indian agriculture is decided by the soil types and climatic parameters which determine overall agro-ecological setting for nourishment and appropriateness of a crop or set of crops for cultivation. There are three distinct crop seasons in India, namely Kharif, Rabi and Zaid. The Kharif season started with Southwest Monsoon under which the cultivation of tropical crops such as rice, cotton, jute, jowar, bajra and tur are cultivated.
Types Of Cropping System
- Monocropping: Example Planting Wheat year after year in the same field. Monocropping is when the field is used to grow only one crop season after season.
- Crop Rotation: Example Planting maize one year, and beans the next. Crop Rotation means changing the type of crops grown in the field each season or each year (or changing from crops to follow).Crop rotation is a key principle of agriculture conservation because it improves the soil structure and fertility, and because it helps control weeds, pests and diseases.
- Sequential Cropping: Example- Planting maize in the long rains, then beans during the short rains. Sequential Cropping involves growing two crops in the same field, one after the other in the same year.In some places, the rainy season is long enough to grow two crops: either two main crops, or one main crop followed by a cover crop.Growing Crops two crops may also be possible if there are two rainy seasons, or if there is enough moisture left in the soil to grow a second crop
- Intercropping: Examples- Planting alternating rows of maize and beans, or growing a cover crop in between the cereal rows. Intercropping means growing two or more crops in the same field at the same time.
- Mixed Intercropping: Distribution of the seeds of both the crops, or dibbling the seeds without any row arrangement. This process is called mixed intercropping. It is easy to do but makes weeding, fertilization and harvesting difficult. Individual plants may compete with each other because they are too close together.Planting the main crop in rows and then spreading the seeds of the intercrop (such as a cover crop).
- Row Intercropping: Planting both the main crop and the intercrop in rows. This is called row intercropping. The rows make weeding and harvesting easier than with mixed intercropping.
- Stir Cropping: Example Planting alternating strips of maize, soybean and finger millet. Stir Cropping involves planting broad strips of several crops in the field. Each strip is 3–9 m wide. On slopes, the strips can be laid out along the contour to prevent erosion. The next year, the farmer can rotate crops by planting each strip with a different crop.
- Relay Cropping: Example- Planting maize, then sowing beans between the maize rows four weeks later.Relay Cropping the process of growing one crop, then planting another crop (usually a cover crop) in the same field before harvesting the first. This helps avoid competition between the main crop and the intercrop. It also uses the field for a longer time, since the cover crop usually continues to grow after the main crop is harvested.
Cropping systems have been traditionally structured to maximize crop yields. Now, there is a strong need to design cropping systems which take into consideration the emerging social, economical, and ecological or environmental concerns.
Conserving soil and water and maintaining long-term soil productivity depend largely on the management of cropping systems, which influence the magnitude of soil erosion and soil organic matter dynamics. While highly degraded lands may require the land conversion to non-agricultural systems (e.g., forest, perennial grass) for their restoration, prudently chosen and properly managed cropping systems can maintain or even improve soil productivity and restore moderately degraded lands by improving soil resilience. Crop diversification is an important option in sustainable agricultural systems.